美國憲政的初始奠基者(下)

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  • 發布時間: 2019-01-12 14:58:22
  • 作者: yueshuo1
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美國憲政的初始奠基者()

三,約翰·洛克(John Locke1632-1704)

洛克是英國的哲學家。他信奉基督新教,是輝格黨員(Whigs, Whiggamores),意為「好鬥的蘇格蘭長老會派教徒」。

洛克認為,基督徒首先必須對自己的私慾和惡習進行戰爭;基督徒必須生活聖潔、行事道德高尚、善良與溫柔精神。

John Locke said, “Whosoever will list himself under the banner of Christ, must, in the first place and above all things, make war upon his own lusts and vices. It is in vain for any man to usurp the name of Christian, without holiness of life, purity of manners, benignity and meekness of spirit.”

洛克在「柏拉圖的社會契約理論」與「基督徒的個體意識」(Individual Concepts)基礎上,發展出自己的的「社會契約理論」,他主張政府只有在取得人民的同意,並且保障人民擁有生命、自由、和財產的自然權利時,其管理權才有正當性;他認為只有在取得人民的同意時,社會契約才會成立,否則人民便有推翻政府的權利,這就是革命權。

洛克認為人本質上是自由的,人擁有的權利,如生命權,自由權和財產權。

洛克的思想成為了《美國獨立宣言》裡的主要理念,這可以從下列洛克的語錄得知,因此《美國獨立宣言》的本質就是《洛克的理念宣言》。

177672日,《美國獨立宣言》“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it.

為了保障這些權利,人類才在他們之間建立政府,而政府之正當權力,是經人民的同意而產生的。當任何形式的政府對這些目標具破壞作用時,人民便有權力改變或廢除。

盧梭(Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778),盧梭也在洛克過世後寫了「社會契約或政治權利原理」(The social contract or Principles of political right)書,他在這書裡主張,「人是生而自由的,但卻無往不在枷鎖之中。」(Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.),他說的政治權威在人類的自然狀態中並不存在,因此人類需要一個社會契約。

盧梭認為,一個理想的社會建立於人與人之間而非人與政府之間的契約關係;政府的權力來自人民的認可。

盧梭認為,一個完美的社會是為人民的「公共意志」(公意)所控制的,雖然他沒有定義如何達成這個目標,但他建議由公民團體組成的代議機構作為立法者,通過討論來產生公共意志。

盧梭認為,在社會契約中,每個人都放棄天然自由,而獲取契約自由;在參與政治的過程中,只有每個人同等地放棄全部天然自由,轉讓給整個集體,人類才能得到平等的契約自由。

盧梭的這種奠基在「人本主義」與「集體意識」的「社會契約」思想,是建立在「相信代表集體意志的政府可以為人類帶來自由與平等」,盧梭的思想影響了法國大革命。

盧梭相信「人本文化」與「代表集體意志的政府可以創造一個完美的社會。」。

盧梭無法理解下列「以神為本」的經文內涵:

以色列的神,以色列的磐石曉諭我說,那以公義治理人民的,敬畏神,執掌權柄。(撒母耳記下23:3)

耶和華在天上立定寶座,他的權柄統管萬有。(詩篇 103:19)

因為耶和華至高者是可畏的,他是治理全地的大君王。(詩篇 47:2)

神用權能治理萬民,直到永遠。(詩六六7)

盧梭主張直接民主。盧梭認為,「人民的主權是不能代表的」;盧梭批評英國的代議制時說:「英國人自以為是自由的,他們是大錯特錯了。他們只有在選舉國會議員期間,才是自由的。議員一旦選出之後,他們就是奴隸,他們就等於零了。」

盧梭不了解「責任授權」的概念,這是來自《聖經》的啟示,教會是神國的代理,傳道人是神話語的代理,代議政治的本質是責任授權;盧梭的直接民主思想(Rule by people, Rule by majority),導致了法國大革命時期的暴民政治。

法國大革命思想受伏爾泰(Voltaire)、孟德斯鳩(Montesquieu)、盧梭(Rousseau)等三人影響。

伏爾泰是理性主義者,反對教會的信仰,提倡無約束的言論自由。他曾說,「縱使我不同意你所說的每一句話,我願意付上生命代價來保障你說這些話的自由。」;然而,沒有個體自律(Individual self government)的自由言論,如同殺人的刀。

孟德斯鳩不主張「廢除君主」而主張「限制君權」,著重法治,並沒有提到「God’s Law」與「God's Justice」。

那些參與法國大革命者,他們普遍心中沒有神,在他們所創立的充滿集體主義意識的政府裡,暴民政治在「General Well(公共意志)的旗幟掩護下,所進行的殘忍殺戮罪行,並不輸給那些他們所反對的暴君的殺人罪行。

盧梭的名著《民約論》指出,在任何政制下,政治權威者的權力來自人民,而政治權威者在位,也是人民的意願。盧梭主張的民主是「以人為主」,盧梭強調「General Well(公共意志)與「Well-ordered Society」;盧梭的政治主張不是「以神為主」,這種強調「General Well(公共意志)與「Well-ordered Society」的民主最終必然會走向「崇拜人的意志」與「新極權政治」。

For Rousseau, the only legitimate political authority is the authority consented to by all the people, who have agreed to such government by entering into a social contract for the sake of their mutual preservation.

盧梭不明白,在不「以神為主」與「權力制約」的政制裡,民選的政府裡的取得權力者,經常會透過假藉或操縱民意來篡奪民意主權,以此來追求自己的私人利益,這將導致民主暴政,這就是法國大革命時期的政治現象。

洛克的「社會契約」是建立在「個體人信仰神與個體須負責的契約政治可以保障個體人的生命、自由與財產的自然權利」,洛克的思想影響了美國的憲政。

洛克的「社會契約」與盧梭的「社會契約」是本質完全不同的思想。前者使美國在獨立戰爭後走向和平的憲政,後者使法國大革命最終走向暴民政治與導致拿破崙專制政權的興起。

約翰·洛克將國家權力分為立法權、行政權和對外權,並主張立法權與行政權的分立,行政權與對外權的統一;立法權是國家最高權力。

洛克的重要思想:

In the Two Treatises of Government, he defended the claim that men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all people naturally subject to a monarch. He argued that people have rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, that have a foundation independent of the laws of any particular society. Locke used the claim that men are naturally free and equal as part of the justification for understanding legitimate political government as the result of a social contract where people in the state of nature conditionally transfer some of their rights to the government in order to better ensure the stable, comfortable enjoyment of their lives, liberty, and property. Since governments exist by the consent of the people in order to protect the rights of the people and promote the public good, governments that fail to do so can be resisted and replaced with new governments. Locke is thus also important for his defense of the right of revolution. Locke also defends the principle of majority rule and the separation of legislative and executive powers. 

洛克的著名語錄:

1Being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.

2Revolt is the right of the people.

3The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom.

4Men being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent.

5In transgressing the law of nature, the offender declares himself to live by another rule than that of reason and common equity.

6As usurpation is the exercise of power, which another hath a right to; so tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right, which no body can have a right to. And this is making use of the power any one has in his hands, not for the good of those who are under it, but for his own private separate advantage. When the governor, however intitled, makes not the law, but his will, the rule; and his commands and actions are not directed to the preservation of the properties of his people, but the satisfaction of his own ambition, revenge, covetousness, or any other irregular passion.

7The power of the legislative, being derived from the people by a positive voluntary grant and institution, can be no other than what that positive grant conveyed, which being only to make laws, and not to make legislators, the legislative can have no power to transfer their authority of making laws, and place it in other hands.

8Wherever, therefore, any number of men so unite into one society, as to quit everyone his executive power of the law of Nature, and to resign it to the public, there, and there only, is a political or civil society. [....] Hence it is evident that absolute monarchy, which by some men [e.g., Hobbes] is counted the only government in the world, is indeed inconsistent with civil society, and so can be no form of civil government at all.

9Government has no other end, but the preservation of property.

10The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property.

11Every man has a property in his own person. This nobody has a right to, but himself.

12Where there is no property there is no injustice.

13To love our neighbor as ourselves is such a truth for regulating human society, that by that alone one might determine all the cases in social morality.

14The Bible is one of the greatest blessings bestowed by God on the children of men. It has God for its Author, salvation for its end, and truth without any mixture for its matter. It is all pure, all sincere; nothing too much; nothing wanting!

四,《反對君主專制》與《法律為王》

在北美獨立戰爭期間,上列兩書對傑斐遜(Thomas Jefferson1743-1826)與亞當斯(John Adams1735-1826)等美國建國者們有很大的影響。

1530年代胡格諾派(Huguenot)受到約翰·加爾文思想的影響,逐漸成為「法國新教」,他們反對君主專制。

1572年發生聖巴托洛繆大屠殺,又稱聖巴多羅買日大屠殺(Saint Bartholomew's Day),這是法國國王殘酷鎮壓胡格諾派教徒事件;1572年後,胡格諾派信徒寫了一系列小冊子如《反對君主專制》,這是人類以個人的靈魂反抗國的權力的宣言。

1644年,參與起草《威斯敏斯特信條》的蘇格蘭籍委員撒母耳盧塞福在威斯敏斯特會議期間出版了《法律為王》書,主張「國王永遠在神的律法和人民的契約之下」。

美國憲法開首說,「We the people(我們人民),這代表憲政的權力基礎在人民而不是國王或政府,這就是「Sovereignty resides in the people, Popular sovereignty, Sovereignty of the people, sovereignty devolved on the people(主權在民)理念的呈現。

In 1787, James Wilson said that in America sovereignty "resides in the PEOPLE, as the fountain of government" and that "the supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power remains in the people." 

In 1793, Chief Justice John Jay observed that after the Revolution in America, he said, "sovereignty devolved on the people," who "truly" became "the sovereigns of the country." 

美國憲政的核心理念是「We the People」,雷根在告別演說裡對它作了最好的詮釋:

Ours was the first revolution in the history of mankind that truly reversed the course of government, and with three little words: "We the People."

"We the People" tell the Government what to do, it doesn't tell us. "We the people" are the driver - the Government is the car. And we decide where it should go, and by what route, and how fast. Almost all the world's constitutions are documents in which governments tell the people what their privileges are. Our Constitution is a document in which "We the People" tell the Government what it is allowed to do. "We the people" are free.

由於美國建國者大都是基督徒,因此他們知道每一人都是「King」,耶和華是「King of kings」;他們都是「神的兒女」;他們都是「神眼中的瞳仁」(32 :10;詩17:8;箴7:2;哀2:18;亞2:8),他們存在的目的在於「榮耀神」。

雖然他們口稱「We the People」,但他們的內心卻很清楚地認定「Sovereignty of God」與「God is the supreme authority and all things are under His control」。

美國憲政的信仰基礎,可以從美元鈔票上的「In God We Trust」文字與美國國歌-《星條旗》(The Star-Spangled Banner)結尾的「In God is our trust」文字得知。

美國憲政的精神理念,林肯對它作了最好的詮釋:

186311 19日林肯在蓋茨堡演講(Gettysburg Address)時所說的:「一個屬於人民、依靠人民、為了人民的政府將永存於世。」(Government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth)

美國憲政的目標是建立「耶和華的國度」,這可以從美國的《效忠宣誓》得知。

美國的《效忠宣誓》:我謹宣誓效忠美利堅合眾國國旗及效忠所代表之憲政國,神之下的國度,不可分裂,自由平等全民皆享。

Pledge of AllegianceI pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

美國憲政的本質,溫斯羅普與雷根對它作了最好的詮釋:

曾經擔任過哈佛大學校長的清教徒約翰·溫斯羅普(John Winthrop1588-1649),在1630年以「山上的城」講題佈道時,他引用了「馬太福音5:14」耶穌的登山寶訓中關於鹽和光的隱喻:「你們是世上的光。城立在山上,是不能隱藏的。」

温斯羅普指出「在新英格蘭建立馬薩諸塞灣殖民地的清教徒殖民者,他們的新社區將成為一座山上的城,被全球矚目」;這「山上的城」後來被引用而成為代表「美國」的理念。

1989年,雷根(Ronald Wilson Reagan1911-2004)在告別演說中說:「在我整個政治生涯中,我一再談到發光的城。在我心目中,這是一座高大雄偉、令人驕傲的城,建造在堅固的磐石上,面對狂風巨浪而巋然不動。在神的庇護下,生活在這裏的不同膚色的人們和睦共處,享受和平。」

Reagan's Farewell Address to American People

I've spoken of the shining city all my political life, but I don't know if I ever quite communicated what I saw when I said it. But in my mind, it was a tall proud city built on rocks stronger than oceans, wind swept, God blessed, and teeming with people of all kinds living in harmony and peace.

美國清教徒相信,他們所信仰的是「God’s steadfast love and justice(神的永恆的愛與正義),他們所建立的是「God’s Kingdom(神的國)

 

美國清教徒深知,若沒有維護他們與神的約(Covenant),他們未來將會受到神的審判;這樣敬畏神的人所創造的美國憲政,當然是地球上其它國所無法企及的屬靈事工。

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